GLOBAL & CANADA
World Energy Consumption- Renewable, Non-Emitting, and Non-Renewable
The surge of energy consumption in the recent decades is fuelled by population growth and industrial developments, which have outpaced our ability to sustainably 'Protect Our Planets Lungs, within the Oceans and Forests'.
Oil, Coal, and Gas continue to dominate our energy consumption. As non-renewable fossil fuels, they are heavy emitters of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) responsible for our global climate change. The greenhouse effect absorbs heat (by water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons) and increases our earth's average surface temperature.
Carbon emissions are decelerating with slowing primary energy consumption and a shift from coal onto renewables and natural gas.
Data from BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2022 ↗, IEA Electricity Generation by Source ↗ from 1990-2018. Also see Visual Capitalist- Energy Consumption by Country ↗
Opportunities & Obstacles:
We have an urge for technology innovation and investments to attain Net-Zero ↗ CO2 emissions, for environmental sustainability targets. Opportunities drive to improve reliability, supply, economic feasibility, land usage and infrastructure developments:
IEA Clean Energy Innovation & Technology Guide ↗
Renewables: https://ourworldindata.org/cheap-renewables-growth ↗
Wind (off-shore potential)
Flow Batteries and improving Lithium-Ion
Pumped Hydro (incl. underground reservoirs)
Thermal Storage (ex. molten salt)
Hydrogen (improving the electrolysis process and electrolyzers), including Low-Carbon Hydrogen and Hydrogen-derived Fuels
4. Carbon Capture, Utilisation & Storage
Direct Air Capture
5. Electrification in Transportation and Heating
Nuclear Fission ↗ is used to continuously split uranium atoms. The heat energy released is used to make steam that will drive a turbine and generate electricity.
Nuclear Power is used to provide stable (baseload) grids and energy security, with reduced dependence on imported fuels.
In 2021, Global electricity generated by nuclear was 9.8%
¹Electricity generation by nuclear fuel = 2,800.3 / 28,466.3 [TWh]
2nd largest source of global low-carbon electricity (to hydro-power)
New nuclear technologies are required for a global clean energy system ↗
Nuclear power capacity ↗ is required to approximately double (from 390 GW) for a net-zero scenario ↗
440 Nuclear Power Reactor in Operation ↗ (mapped locations ↗)
92- in United States, 56- France, 55- China, 54 under construction
Various Reactor Types exist around the world: : PWR, BWR, PHWR, AGR, LWGR, and FBR (charted below)
Canadian Nuclear Facts by CNA
19 Reactors in Operation, all designs are CANDU Technology ↗ (a PHWR) which also has a global presence (mapped below)
Uranium Processing and Nuclear Industry ↗ are a strong part of Canada's Natural Resources
Saskatchewan has the world's highest-grade uranium deposits
Regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, and Acts ↗
Among the Safest in the World- with a focus on Safety Systems ↗
CANDU Locations- A Canadian Design and Technology
Solar Energy from the sun is the most abundant and available renewable energy source
Global Wind Atlas, Wind Map & Weather, Wind Finder (all ↗)
Today's primary Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) use wind's kinetic energy to produce mechanical power and transform it into electricity, how it comes together-
Originated from wind mills used for milling grain, draining rice fields, driving scoop wheels for pumping water, and sawing wood. Evolved to wind turbines from a vertical to a horizontal axis of rotation, with the most common being a lift-driven rotor with upwind orientation and 3 blades.
The majority of WTGs are for large utility grids and in the capacity range of 1.5 to 5 MW
They can achieve up to 9.5 MW power ratings- see the Top 10 wind turbines on the market
5.3% global electricity is generated by Wind Power (source: BP Energy Review)
1429.6 TWh of Wind power generation in 2019 (+12.6% growth from 2018)
Compared to 724 TWh of Solar (+24.3% growth)
A 23% average annual growth rate over the past 30 years (source: IEA renewables)
60.3 GW (2019) of new installed wind capacity (source: GWEC Windsight)
WindEurope plans to quadruple wind power in the next 30 years, with increasing feasibility propelling more Offshore wind in the mix
Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA)- see: infographic
13,413 MW (end of 2019) of Installed Wind Capacity
United with CanSIA within the Canadian renewablesassociation.ca
Based on meteorological tools and wind resource potential simulation: http://windatlas.ca/maps-en.php
5,436 MW (end of 2019) in Ontario- largest wind market in Canada with 2,681 wind turbines
IESO's Live Output and Forecast for Wind Power
More dense placement on the Southern Coast near the load center of Toronto
The composition is primarily Methane (70-90%): http://naturalgas.org/overview/background/
Canada's Pipelines Network:
Transmission pipelines span 121,000 km, and moves 97% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil production. The remaining 3% is by rail or truck.
Over 5.9 Trillion Cubic feet of Natural Gas: 54% was delivered to Canadians and 46% exported to the U.S.
World Petroleum (Oil & Gas) Resource Assessment ↗
An Interactive Map ↗ of Crude Oil Pipelines for Canada & USA
How Oil prices change ↗ in the USA
Oil Refining illustrated by Australia's FES Tanks (below)