World Energy Consumption- Renewable, Non-Emitting, and Non-Renewable
The energy consumption surge in the recent decades is fuelled by population growth and industrial developments, which have outpaced our ability to sustainably 'Protect Our Planets Lungs, within the Oceans and Forests'.
Oil, Coal, and Gas continue to dominate our energy consumption. As non-renewable fossil fuels, they are heavy emitters of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) responsible for our global climate change. The greenhouse effect absorbs heat (by water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons) and increases our earth's average surface temperature.
Carbon emissions are decelerating with slowing primary energy consumption (+1.3%) and a shift from coal onto renewables and natural gas. Consumption decreased in North America, as China accounted for most of the global growth.
We have an urge for technology innovation and investments to attain net-zero CO2 emissions, for environmental sustainability targets. The primary approaches remain with:
Electrification in transporation and heating
Carbon capture, utilisation and storage
Low-carbon hydrogen and hydrogen-derived fuels
Use of bioenergy
Sources: Data from BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021 ↗
Visual Capitalist- Energy Consumption by Country ↗
United States Energy Flow by Source- a Sankey Diagram
This represents the US Energy Consumption in 2019 (History) ↗ - the arrow widths are proportional to the amount of flow. As the overall consumption is 100.2 Quads, it is relative to the % share of overall energy consumption. This graph shows the relationship between resources use and by-products.
Some key insights are the heavy dependence on petroleum (oil) for transportation, resulting to rejected energy lost as heat to the environment due to low energy conversion efficiencies.
Transforming the Energy systems will require Innovating Technologies to stitch together an evolving mix- and reshape our economy and society
Mission Innovation ↗- for accelerating the Clean Energy Revolution, with increased R&D funding
Green Infrastructure and Clean Technologies expenditures on:
Electrification- Charging Station Networks
Dual Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion
Sustainable Aviation Fuel
Carbon Capture, Use and Storage (CCUS)- ex. Shell's Quest ↗
Transmission- Smart Grids, and Energy Storage
Efficiencies- Green Buildings, and Cogeneration (Heat & Power)
Canada's Energy Transition- Report (recommendations) by Generation Energy Council
Reliable, Affordable, Low Carbon Economy, 4 collective pathways:
Wasting Less Energy
Cleaner Oil and Gas